Cape Town Drought

After some eighteen months of commuting between Europe and South Africa with 90-day tourist visas, I arrived in Cape Town in mid-January of this year with a 4-year residency permit.  It had involved several months of meeting many bureaucratic requirements (Applying for South African Residency), but finally I could stay, at least for four years, with the possibility of extending.

But no sooner had I landed, when my driver made me aware of the seriousness of the Cape drought situation.  At the end of the seasonal rains in 2014, the dams were almost full, but three years of below normal rainfall had left them in a precarious situation; the dam levels were at just over 20% capacity.  Little capacity remained, as the last 10% cannot easily be accessed.

Shortly after, the local government reduced the legal consumption from 87 litres per person per day to 50 litres.  Now I had no idea of what normal water consumption per day would be, but I was told that in Sweden 200 litres per day was normal and in the US 300.  So how to get down to 50 L per day?

Copious advice was available.  Obviously filling swimming pools, watering gardens and washing cars were out of the question.  We were advised that a 30 second shower used about 18 litres, a full flush of a toilet, 9 litres, and a quick flush, 5 litres.  And a washing machine and a dish washer about 25-35 litres each, depending on the make and model.  So, 50 litres per day per person was not a lot of water, at least not by western standards.

In the bars and restaurants, clients were urged not to flush toilets, unless absolutely necessary – ‘If it’s yellow, let it mellow; if brown, flush it down’.  And in the Radisson Hotel, near the Waterfront, there was and still is, an exhibit to educate guests on the water situation and the impact of having a bath or a 90-second shower.

Dam Levels 2007-2017

Water usuage

But how did Cape Town get in this precarious situation, that attracted the international press naming of Cape Town as the first major city at risk of running out of water?

Obviously, the failure of the annual winter rainfall was a major contributor to the crisis.  But I suspect that there has been no recent increase in the capacity to store water in the ‘wet’ years.  The existing dam walls need to be radically raised where feasible, to avoid the overflows in the wet years spilling to the sea.

Of course, the population of Cape Town is not static; according to Premier Helen Zille, between the census of 1996 and that of 2011, the population increased by 45% to 3.8 million.  I often wonder how they count the hordes of homeless and vagrants that one encounters in the relatively prosperous area in which we live, never mind in the ‘no-go’ townships, which sane people avoid.

And what about the tourist trade?  In recent years, Cape Town has been the ‘in place´ to visit and be seen.  But tourists are predictably not enthused about restricted showering and toilet flushing and choose to spend their money elsewhere.  After the ‘negative news’ hit the international press, the hotels, restaurants and bars of the city reflected the paucity of business.  It has not been a great year for the tourism industry.

In February the government announced that ‘Day Zero’ would be in March, the day when the water supply would be switched off and that citizens would have to collect their reduced daily allowance of 20 liters per person day.  This would be distributed at some 200 stand-pipes located near supermarkets and other gathering spots and the distribution would be supervised by the military.  There was no information as to how the ration of water would be accounted for.

Predictably there was immediately a run on bottled water.  The supermarket shelves were stripped dry and there was not a drop to be seen anywhere.  When a new shipment arrived in the morning, it soon evaporated.  The supermarkets limited the purchase per client, but the shelves remained empty.

Then ‘Day Zero’ was suddenly postponed and then postponed again.  There was still no rain, but the conservation efforts of the population and eliminating water to the farms, resulted in a 60% reduction of water consumption.  At least that was the official reason for the postponements.

And in early May it started to rain, not heavily, but persistently, and the dams started to fill.  Day by day the levels grew, from 20.9% on 7 May, through 30% on 5 June, 40% on 20 June, and 50% on 3 July.  As of today, the level is at 56.5%.

Is the drought over?  Probably it is for the next twelve months, but one must remember that the farms are still not receiving any water and they are suffering.  Until the stored water level gets to 70% of capacity, the emergency should not be declared as over for this year.Capture

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To contribute to available water supplies in the future, the local government has set the objective of obtaining at least 10% from alternative supplies:

  • Desalination plants are being constructed
  • Wells are being drilled
  • A blitz on leaking pipes
  • Treating of effluent water

I recall my old friend in Toronto, Peter Pedrette, relating of when he was a junior quantity surveyor in London, he was being shown around a water treatment plan, and in a break was offered a glass of water from a tap.  After he drank it, he was told that the water had been through at least six people.

For cities, such as Cape Town, in the future reliance on natural rainfall may not be sufficient to satisfy local requirements.  Water, no matter the source, will have to be viewed as a valuable resource, to be cleansed, treated and returned to general consumption.

No longer can we take for granted that water will flow when we turn on the tap.

Mexico City

April 1976

We arrived back in Guatemala City from Antigua in the early afternoon, (see Volcán Agua), and reserved seats on the Tica Bus to Mexico City departure of the next day.  That evening we went to a nearby pizzeria and early to bed; there was no water and the electricity supply was at best, intermittent.

At about 23:00, I woke in a sweat, with an excruciating pain in my bowels.  In the dark, I scuttled to the communal toilet, to which most of the other guests seemed to have preceded me.  With no water supply and unable to flush the toilet, the stench was diabolical; it was a trip to the toilet that was to repeat itself many more times that night and the next morning.

What to do?   We had already paid for the tickets to Mexico City on a bus with no toilet for a 1,400 km journey.  If my gut spasms persisted, could I hold out until each of the next scheduled stops, on average about every two hours.  I decided to go for it.

And thankfully I made it without undue embarrassment… but only just.  As soon as we arrived in Mexico City, I went to the first pharmacy that I encountered  and sought relief.  The pharmacist listened to my symptoms and gave me some pills that he was confident would eliminate the problem.  They certainly worked, almost instantly; I was totally blocked up for most of the next two weeks.

We found a room in a clean and inexpensive hotel, close to the two great plazas of the city: the Alameda and the Zócolo.  It was a perfect location in the historic heart of the city.

Nearby was the Alameda, a large central city park, with a complex layout of paths, statues and fountains.  Originally it was the Aztec marketplace.  At the eastern end of the park is the Palacio de Bellas Artes, an opulent building dedicated to the performing arts – music, dance, theater and opera, and exhibitions of art and photography.

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The Alameda (photo from internet)
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The Palacio de Bellas Artes (photo from internet)

To the east of the Alameda is the Zócolo, known as the Plaza de la Constitutión, a massive square measuring about 250 m by 250 m.  On one side is the Cathedral, on another the Palacio Nacional and on the other two sides various Federal Buildings.  In the centre of the plaza there is an enormous flag pole.

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The Zocoló (photo from internet)

We went to the Palacio Nacional to see the murals painted by Diego Rivera.  Now I am not renowned for my enthusiasm for things artistic, but a friend had told me that I would find a visit to have been worthwhile.  I was not disappointed.  The murals were most impressive, covering the history of Mexico from the pre-colonial era, through the Spanish conquest and the modern-day rise of the working class.  I felt very small looking up at them from the stairs and the adjacent corridors.

Diego Rivera mural in the Palacio Nacional
Murals of Diego Rivera in the Palacio Nacional (photo from internet)

That evening we went to the Frontón México, an art-deco building that was the home of Jai Alai in Mexico City.  It is a few minutes walk to the west of the Alameda.

Jai Alai is based on a similar game originating from the Vasco region of north-eastern Spain.  It is played on a long rectangular court with walls on three sides and a high ceiling, similar to an elongated squash court, with one wall removed and glass screening to protect the audience.

The ball is rock-hard and is caught and slung against the end wall with a hand-held device called a cesta.  It is renowned for being the fastest ball sport.

Most of the crowd were there to gamble and as a game progressed, the odds were constantly changing.  The book-takers ran up and down the steps taking bets and issuing receipts.  The noise level was impressive and I entered the fray, with my small bank of pesos that I was prepared to lose as part of the experience.  I survived for a couple of hours, sometimes up, at other times down, until it was gone.  It was a fun night.

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The Frontón México as it is today (photo from internet)

On the way back to our hotel, we went to the Plaza Garibaldi, a short walk to the north of the Alameda.  The Plaza Garibaldi was known for its mariachi bands and we were not disappointed, for there were at least a dozen of them.  Each one consisted of violins, trumpets and different forms of guitars, some with a harp, at times each musician taking turns to sing, at other times singing as a group.

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A typical mariachi group in the Plaza Garibaldi

And here you can hear how a mariachi group sounds…

It was with the sound of a dozen mariachi bands reverberating in our ears, that we wandered back to our hotel in the early hours of the morning.

And my bowels slept serenely that night…

 

 

 

 

Analemmatic Sundial

Since I moved to Cape Town over two years ago, I have walked through Green Point Park almost every day.  Many of the regular park staff greet me with a smile and a welcome comment; I always feel very much at home in the park.  And it is with keen interest that I observe the daily progress of the bird-life, the building of their nests and the hatching of their young, and the flowering of the plethora of Cape plants.  I am blessed with the time to witness the annual progress of nature.

In the middle of one of the open grass areas of the park, there is a semi-circle of small pillars.  I had sometimes wondered what they represented, but my curiosity was not great enough to deviate me from my path: until recently.

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I found that there were 14 small pillars in a semi-circle, numbered from 6 to 19, and at right angles, two elliptical shapes marked with the months of the year.

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I was still none the wiser until I read the explanation on the sign, and then all was revealed.

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It was a normal Cape sunny day and I decided to test the sundial.  Following the instructions, I stood on the mark at July, stretched up my arms, noted the time, made the necessary adjustment as per the instructions and compared it to the time in my phone.  The latter was one minute slow!

Isn’t nature wonderful?…  🙂

Tikal

April 1976

At the time, we never considered flying to Flores, the nearest airport to Tikal: we did not even know that there was an airport there, but if we had known, we would still have gone by bus.  So, A-M, Joe and I bought one-way tickets for the local bus, leaving late that evening.

It was very dark on the way to the depot. Few street lights in the city were functioning, but it was easy to find the bus at the depot: it was the only one with lights switched on and motor coughing and spluttering, ready to go.  It was an ancient bus that had seen better days: it was probably older than we were.  And as it turned out, we were the last passengers to arrive.

We entered the bus through the rear door and immediately the strong smell of stale sweat and unwashed clothes hit us.   We were the only ‘foreign’ passengers and we had to search for the three remaining dispersed seats.  There was no spare leg-room between the rows of seats and I felt like a giant when compared to the local Indian population.  The door was soon closed and with a roar, we departed.

Within a short time, the passengers that had been awake, were fast asleep.  Somewhere ahead of me A-M and Joe may have also been asleep.  I had a little Indian guy cuddled up to my shoulder.  He stayed there for most of the journey,  I really did not mind.

We were soon on a second or third-class road, sometimes descending, at others ascending, tossing, turning and bumping from pothole to pothole.  Twice our progress abruptly ceased.  Each time I got out with some others to watch the driver, buried in the engine, fiddling, swearing, adjusting, with only the light of a torch, until the motor finally exploded into life, to a round of applause from the appreciative audience.

At intervals through the night the bus stopped to drop off passengers or to pick up others. It was shortly after dawn when we arrived in Flores.  When I left the bus, I was no longer aware of human body smells.  How rapidly we can adjust to our environment.

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Map of Guatemala, with Flores about 480 km to the NNE of Guatemala City

We had no trouble in finding an inexpensive, but clean and comfortable hotel, with a view over the lake.  There appeared to be few, if any, tourists in Flores, most probably scared off by the earthquakes.  Joe headed off to find a neighbouring hostel that had been recommended to him, and we agreed to meet later that evening.

And when we did, Joe was enthusiastic about a bar that he had passed early that day.  We went in, and after our eyes had adjusted to the dim light, and we had settled down to our cold beers, the conservation went something like this…

‘Did you actually come here earlier today, Joe?’

‘Nope, I thought that I would wait for you two’

‘Joe, have you noticed anything different about the women?’

‘Well, there seem to be a lot of single women, and they are not wearing much’.

‘What about those doors along that corridor, with the couple just emerging?

‘No, I had not noticed’.

‘And the couple that have just gone down the corridor?  Joe, we are in a brothel’, at which point A-M started to laugh, and the spell was broken.

We eventually finished out beers and left.  No doubt A-M will still be recounting the story of that evening when we took her to a bordello.  And I suspect that Joe returned after we left him at his hostel.

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Flores (photo from internet)

The next day we caught a local bus to the ruins of Tikal, about 65 km to the NW of Flores.  The Mayan city flourished during the era from 200-900 AD but was inexplicably abandoned over a relatively short time.  It became overgrown by the jungle and it was not until the mid-1800s that it was ‘rediscovered’, although the local Indian tribes were aware of its existence.

When we were there, it was only partly uncovered, and there were numerous mounds, smothered in vegetation, that once restored, would one day reveal their form and purpose.  In its day, Tikal encompassed a large area, connected by causeways.

The temples were massive, and we climbed two of them, Temples I and II.  They were steep, and the steps were irregular and quite worn, but the view from the top over the jungle was breath-taking.  And on the way up, monkeys were screeching at us from neighbouring trees.  It was sobering to remember that countless of human sacrifices were performed on those elevated altars.

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Temple I (photo from internet)
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Temple II (photo from internet)
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Temple V (photo from internet)

We were travelling light and decided to spend the night in Tikal, sleeping in hammocks in a little enclosure in the jungle.  The shelter was circular, with a thick waterproof roof of fronds, open on all sides, with a waist-high wall.  There was no light, so when the sun set, we climbed into our hammocks.

Initially, I fell asleep, but was often awoken by the constant clamour of the jungle.  It was another world out there.  At one time there was a furious galloping through our clearing.  The next day we were told that it would have been a tapir.

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A tapir with the mottled camouflage of the young (photo from internet)

When we returned to Flores, we decided to fly back to Guatemala City.  The Flores airport was nearby, and none of us relished another long and uncomfortable bus journey.

The next day, Joe continued on his way north and we headed off to Antigua.  You can read more of our journey here at Volcán Agua.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Costa Rica to Guatemala

It was April 1976, and we had just left Costa Rica, and before that Panamá.  For the next few days we travelled north on the Inter-American Highway, through Nicaragua, Honduras, and El Salvador to Guatemala, where we intended to stop for a while.  I wanted to experience the Mayan ruins at Tikal, to the north-west of Guatemala City, and to spend time in Antigua, with its nearby volcanoes.

From San José to Guatemala City is about 1200 km and the journey took us three days.  Several times each day, progress came to a complete halt;  it took at least one hour to progress through each side of a border, and there was a military road block both entering and leaving most towns.  In that part of Central America, it was deemed dangerous for drivers to continue after dark.

Managua was our first stop.  The city looked devastated, with shattered buildings and a cathedral that was so badly damaged that it had been shuttered and abandoned.  The earthquake that hit Managua on 23 December 1972 was of magnitude 6.3, and an estimated 8,000 were killed , 20,000 injured, and 300,000 left homeless.  Everywhere people looked defeated and dejected. I suspect that the ruling Somoza family were more intent on preserving their grip on power, with the military support of the Americans, than on helping their own people.

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The derelict Managua Cathedral

Progress through Honduras to El Salvador was little different – abject poverty, dejection and a strong military presence.  Although it was seven years since San Salvador tried to invade Honduras in 1969, the two countries were technically still at war.  The peace treaty was not signed until 1980.

In San Salvador, the same gloom pervaded.  Shortly after dusk I went out for a stroll around the main plaza.  In every doorway there was a heavily armed soldier.  They seemed to be tense and wary.  Although they did not trouble me, I made my stroll a short one.

In Guatemala City, the evidence of the very recent earthquake was everywhere to be seen: shattered buildings and impoverished people living under plastic sheets, often only covering cardboard boxes.  Even the roundabouts of the main highway were crowded with destitute people.  Pure desolation everywhere.

The earthquake occurred on February 4, 1976 with a force of 7.6, and with thousands of aftershocks, continuing well into March.  23,000 people were killed and 77,000 injured, with some 260,000 homes destroyed.

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The Hotel Terminal in Guatemala City, after the earthquake of 1976

We found a room in a hostel, the owner of which was a lovely elderly Swiss lady, who had spent most of her life in Guatemala; her husband had recently died.  The hostel became our base in Guatemala, in between trips to other parts of the country.

Because of the extensive damage caused by the earthquake, water was available for only one hour in the morning and again for one hour in the evening.  I will not attempt to describe the stench that seeped from the communal toilets: by comparison, my article, Shit, would smell of roses.

The hostel was opposite the main police station and I will never forget witnessing a handcuffed man being dragged out of a police car, and kicked and brutally clubbed by three thugs, otherwise known as policemen.  I shudder to imagine what must go on, once inside the cells.

One evening we were in a restaurant when the lights went out, the floor started to move, the building creaked and all was black.  People were running out of buildings and into the street, many hysterical.  It was yet another strong after-shock and there were women and children screaming in the street: they feared the worst.

I have no recall of how we managed to meet up again with Joe, the New York cop, with whom we spent time in Panamá, but there he was.  Given the situation in the city, we agreed to set off the next night, by local bus, on the overnight trip to Flores and the ruins of the Mayan city of Tikal.

 

 

 

Costa Rica

Today, we are smothered in information.  We can book flights, buses and trains on-line.  We can read the opinions and experiences of others who have preceded us.  We have access to maps and street views.  We could have a trip experience without leaving our comfortable chair by the fireside or the pool.

Thankfully it was not always so.  When we left Panamá in April 1976, we had no idea of what lay before us.

The bus from Panamá left in the early morning and arrived in the early evening in San José.  It was a trip of some 800 km, interspersed with some small provincial towns.  On the way we experienced the curse of Central and South America of that era: frequent military road blocks.  Sometimes it was a cursory check of papers, at other times a thorough check of baggage.  And the passage through frontiers was doubly tedious.  In most cases a visa was mandatory and that could only be prior obtained from an embassy or consulate office, and not at the frontier.  Central and South America was in the grip of military dictatorships, enamoured with bureaucracy.

I have no recall of how we found a room, but we ended up in a very comfortable B&B.  The next day we wandered around the city but found little to excite us: at 1170 m, San José in 1976, seemed like a small sleepy provincial capital.  And churches, museums, art  galleries etc. have never thrilled me: except for the exception of literature, I have always been something of an alien in the ‘arty-farty’ world.  But outside San José lay Irazú, an active volcano, and that really appealed.

So next day we caught the daily bus to the summit.  It was about 55 km to the north-east of San José, a slow, winding climb across the slope of the mountain, carrying us to the summit.  Stepping out of the bus was like what I imagine it would be to step onto the moon: thick grey-black dust everywhere.  And only sparse vegetation.

Irazú stands at 3432 m above sea level.  It has many times erupted in recent history, most notably in 1963, covering the city in a coating of ash, on the day President John F. Kennedy started a state visit to San José. That eruption continued through 1965.

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The main crater of Irazú on a relatively clear day (photo from internet)

Apparently, on a clear day, from the summit of Irazú one can see both the Pacific and Atlantic oceans.  But clear days on Irazú are a relative rarity, and our day was no exception; the cloud cover was thick, and visibility was limited.

We explored the area around the crater, keeping one eye on the direction back to the bus and the other eye on the time; the bus returned to San José after one hour, and we did not fancy having to walk back down the mountain, trying to hitch a lift.

By the time the hour was up, when we returned to the bus, we felt quite thoroughly chilled.  We had not anticipated that the mountain would be so cold, and we were not suitably dressed.

Returning to the balmy tropical air of San José felt so good.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Panamá

Panamá, March 1976

After more than two weeks it felt great to be free of the boat; the constant moving between the gloomy light of the cabin, the restaurant, the bar and the deck was hypnotic.  One lost track of the time and days (see Sailing the Pacific).  Sydney felt very far away and the tropical smells and sounds of Latin America were completely new to me.  It was to be the commencement of my love-affair with Latin culture.

We took a taxi into the old city and told the driver that we wanted an inexpensive clean, hotel near to the international bus terminus.  The hotel to which he took us was adjacent to the Tica Bus station, that linked Panamá with all the central American countries, as far north as Mexico City.  It was a perfect location to stay in the heart of the old city, and the hotel proved to be both quite inexpensive and clean, with a small, albeit garish swimming pool.  We settled in for a few days.

Our first port of call was the bar beside the swimming pool and a cold beer.  It was there that we first met Joe, a New York cop, travelling on his own.  During his military service, he had been stationed in the Canal Zone, and he was on a trip ‘down memory lane’.  He offered to take us to the Canal Zone, so we arranged to go with him the next day.

Following their success in completing the Suez Canal, we learned that France started work on the Panamá canal in 1881, to connect the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, but eventually abandoned the project, due to high mortality rates from tropical diseases and the lack of funding.  It was the U.S. that completed the 80 km canal in 1914.  Between 1903 and 1979, the U.S. controlled the territory on either side of the canal.  From 1979 to 1999, the Canal Zone was jointly managed with Panamá, before being handled over and the withdrawal of the U.S.

Unless one has studied a map of Panamá, one could assume that the canal runs from west to east.  In fact it runs from south-east to north-west, and the Pacific end at Panamá is east of the Caribbean end at Colón.

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As arranged, Joe met us the next day.  A busy road separated the old city from the Canal Zone and the contrast between the two could not have been greater.  On one side there was the old city, with its ramshackle buildings, busy narrow streets, bars, shops, throngs of people, and the constant beat of music.  On the other side there were extensive manicured lawns, interspersed with blocks of apartments, at the centre of which there was a small commercial area.  And there was relative silence.  In the Canal Zone we could have been anywhere US.

We walked down to the canal and watched the shipping wending their way through the series of locks.  To avoid having to make extensive cuts through the central Isthmus, the locks lift ships to, and descend them from, an artificial lake, Gatun.  It took about twelve hours for a ship to pass through the canal.

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The canal (picture from internet)

On another day we went out to the ruins of the original city, Panamá Vieja – founded in 1519.  It became the starting point for expeditions to Perú, and it was from Panamá that gold and  silver were shipped to Spain.  It was attacked several times by pirates, and was finally destroyed in 1671 by the pirate Henry Morgan, with thousands of fatalities.  It was rebuild a few kilometers to the west at the present site.

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Sir Henry Morgan c1635-1888, who ended as Lieutenant Govener of Jamaica (photo from internet)
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The ruins of the cathedral of the original Panama City, with the modern-day city in the background (photo from internet)

When we originally decided to sail from Australia to Panamá, our ambition was to continue south to Chile, and return from there to Sydney.  At the time, I was completely unaware that there was no land connection between Panamá and Colombia, through the Darién Peninsula, and that the only way to reach Colombia was by boat or air.  At the same time we learned of all the interesting countries and geographies that lay to the north.  With the Tica bus terminal being next door, the change of direction was an easy one.  We bought tickets to San José, Costa Rica.

South America could wait for another day.